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Ottoman Turkish Alphabet Images
Music video by Rihanna performing Take A Bow. YouTube view counts pre-VEVO: 66288884. (C) 2008 The Island Def Jam Music Group.
A substitute teacher from the inner city refuses to be messed with while taking attendance.
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|Ottoman Turkish alphabet
|Languages||Ottoman Turkish language|
|ISO 15924||Arab, 160|
The Ottoman Turkish alphabet (Ottoman Turkish: الفبا elifbâ ) was the version of the Arabic Alphabet Perso-Arabic Script that was used for the Ottoman Turkish language during the time of the Ottoman Empire and in the early years of the Republic of Turkey, until the adoption of the new Turkish alphabet, derived from the Latin script. The change was formalized by the Turkish Republic's law number 1353, the Law on the Adoption and Implementation of the Turkish Alphabet, passed on November 1, 1928. The law went into effect on January 1, 1929, making the use of the new alphabet compulsory in all public communications.
Ottoman Turkish was primarily written in the Ottoman Turkish script. It was not, however, unknown for Ottoman Turkish to also be written using the Armenian script; for instance, the first novel to be written in the Ottoman Empire was 1851's Akabi, written in the Armenian script by Vartan Pasha. Similarly, when the Armenian Düzoğlu family managed the Ottoman mint during the reign of Sultan Abdülmecid I (r. 1839–61), they kept records in Ottoman Turkish, but used the Armenian script. Other scripts, too — such as the Greek alphabet and the Rashi script of Hebrew — were used by non-Muslim groups to write the language, since the Arabic alphabet was identified with Islam. On the other hand, for example, Greek-speaking Muslims would write Greek using the Ottoman Turkish script.
As with Arabic and Persian, texts in the Ottoman Turkish alphabet are written right-to-left. The appearance of a letter changes depending on its position in a word: isolated (in a one-letter word); final (in which case it is joined on the right to the preceding letter); medial (joined on both sides); and initial (joined on the left to the following letter). Some letters cannot be joined to the left and do therefore not possess separate medial and initial forms; in medial position the final form is used, and in initial position the isolated form is used.
|ا||ـا||—||elif||a, e||—, ā||a, e|
|ع||ـع||ـعـ||عـ||ayn||', h (or omitted)||‘||ʔ|
|غ||ـغ||ـغـ||غـ||gayn||g, ğ||ġ||ɡ, ɣ|
|ك||ـك||ـكـ||كـ||kef||k, g, ğ, n||k||k|
|گ||ـگ||ـگـ||گـ||gef (1)||g, ğ||g||ɡ|
|ڭ||ـڭ||ـڭـ||ڭـ||nef, sağır kef||n||ŋ||ŋ|
|و||ـو||—||vav||v, o, ö, u, ü||v, ū, aw, avv, ūv||v, o, œ, u, y|
|ه||ـه||ـهـ||هـ||he||h, e, a||h (2)||h, æ|
|ی||ـی||ـیـ||یـ||ye||y, ı, i||y, ī, ay, á, īy||j, ɯ, i|
- A correct Ottoman variant of "gef " will have the "mini-kaf " of ﻙ and the doubled upper stroke of گ. This feature is unavailable in Unicode characters.
- The Library of Congress recommends "he " in a word in the construct state be romanized t and when a word ending in "he " is used adverbially, it should be romanized tan.
|Arabic form||Number||Ottoman Turkish||Modern Turkish|
- Dil Derneği, Yazım Kılavuzu, 2002 (the writing guide of the Turkish language)
- Nationalist Notes, Time, July 23, 1928
- "Tūrk Harflerinin Kabul ve Tatbiki Hakkında Kanun" [Acceptance and Application of Turkish Letters LAW] (in Turkish). Retrieved January 14, 2012.
- Erik Jan Zürcher (2004), Turkey: a Modern History, pages 188–9. ISBN 978-1-85043-399-6
- PDF (166 KB), Library of Congress. Retrieved January 14, 2012.
- Simon Ager, Turkish alphabet, Omniglot